In 1871 Muslims staged the biggest revolt since that of Abd al-Qadir thirty-one years earlier.
The French responded by tightening control and further restricting the rights of the Algerians.
Despite efforts by the government to contain the desert by planting rows of pine trees, it continues to expand northward. The largest of these are the Kabyles, who live in the Kabylia Mountains east of Algiers.
The climate is desert like, although the coast does receive rain in the winter.
Only 3 percent of the land is arable, this along the Mediterranean.
Inland from the coast is the High Plateau region, with an elevation of 1,300 to 4,300 feet (396 to 1,311 meters).
This is mostly rocky and dry, dotted with vegetation on which cattle, sheep, and goats graze.